Invisible Part of The Universe: Dark Matter
What we see on the stage is only a small part of what is there. Scientists’ goal in recent years is to capture the first image from this “invisible” tremendous …
Towards the end of the 1970s, there was still an unexplained discovery today. According to this discovery, it would not be close to 90% of the total mass in the Earth! This means that about 300 billion galaxies, each of which can be observed in the background, of an average of 300 billion stars, our Solar System, celestial bodies and interstellar gas clouds, even 10% of our universe Not creating.
Where is the other invisible mass that makes up 90% of our universe full of secrets? And what kind of significance does this invisible matter have for the flawless order that exists at the moment and continues at any moment?
The Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky was the first to come up with the idea that the substance was invisible in the face. Zwicky was studying the galaxies’ movements around each other in the Coma cluster, 321 million light years in the 1930s. (The Coma cluster is a large galaxy cluster containing over 1000 galaxies.) Zwicky found that the galaxies were moving too fast, so much so that they had to explode and split away from the sky because of this speed. The gravitational force was not strong enough to hold the galaxies together. However, there were many such clusters at the time of the war, and none of them were scattered as predicted by Zwicky. So a power clearly kept the galaxies together. Zwicky has found that these galaxies must be more hidden, providing more of an extra mass gravitational force. What was this item and what was it?
Rotating Galaxies and Discovery of the Dark Matter
First, in 1970s it was determined how fast a galaxy travels in space and how fast it returns. The rotation of the star clusters, however, was also divided into sections, and how the velocities of the orbits of the stars changed with the distances to the center of the galaxy. The astronomers hoped to see, on the edges of the galaxies, stars that rotated slower than those near the center of the galaxy.
Because, as Johannes Kepler discovered, this was the movement of the planets in the Solar System. That is, as the distance to the center of the galaxy increased, the speed of rotation would have to slow down because of the decrease in gravity. This is the expected result of the decrease in mass gravity with the increase of the distance. (Gravitation is inversely proportional to the mass of the bodies and the square of the distance between them.)
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Surprisingly, according to this observation, the stars, regardless of how far they were located from the center of the star cluster, all took their orbits at the same speed. So the stars in the outer part of the galaxy were moving much faster than the mass gravity of the galaxy could hold them. This led to the fact that the galaxy had to have more matter to meet the massive gravitational force.
It was so found that “more material” was hidden within or around the galaxies. Since this material could not be directly observed, the name “dark matter” was given.
The Role of Dark Matter in the Formation of the Universe
The dark matter light does not absorb, reflect, or emit, ie it can not be observed in any region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Scientists have been advocating to confront the dark matter scattered in equal amounts each time since the very beginning of the existence of the universe. There are many theoretical and experimental evidence for this.
One of these evidences is the most detailed dark matter map of the universe, which was produced by scientists under the Dark Energy Exploration and Search (DES) project.
The blue areas on this map correspond to areas where the dark matter is at low density. Yellow and red places indicate areas that are dense. These regions contain super galaxy clusters of thousands of galaxies.
According to researches; The dark matter pulled the clouds of gas and dust towards itself during the new times of our universe and made the first stars emerge from the trapped gas. It was also the first galaxies to bring star clusters together 10 billion years ago.
According to research, it is also the dark matter that the stars on the disk of the Galaxy of the Milky Way and the planets are thrown away. The dark matter surrounding the Milky Way as an invisible halo holds the mass gravity together like galaxy glue.
If it were not for the attraction of dark matter from everywhere, neither stars nor galaxies could form. Or at least it would not have been possible to have stars in such a short time, 100 million years after the Big Bang. As a result, neither the solar system nor the galaxies nor the vitality would form.
With the discovery of the dark matter, it was once again understood that the universe was full of miracles. The English astrophysicist and writer Stuart Clark in his Universe book mentions “dark matter”; “If it were not for dark matter, it would literally mean that much of cosmology (the universe) would have disintegrated.”
The Structure of the Universe and Discovery of Dark Energies
As a result of long-standing research by astronomers, we have discovered that all the stars, galaxies, celestial objects in the sky make up only 4% of the universe. The remaining invisible majority of the universe is composed of dark matter, 22% and dark energy, 74%.
The dark matter emerged with the understanding that the universe was expanding, while galaxies were in or around galaxies so that galaxies could not disperse and continue their existence. How is this expansion possible where the validity of physical laws is lost?
The universe that needs to slow down as it expands shows an accelerating expansion on the contrary. Accelerating expansion requires an additional force, which means that the accelerating expansion means that the universe contains at least three times more energy than the energy in all the cosmic structures (the energy in the entire circumstance that can be observed). Here is the energy that is found but not observed, scientists gave the name “dark energy”.
The force of gravity created by the dark matter collects the substance in the environment, while the dark energy causes the universe to swell like a balloon, causing galaxies to move away from each other. Thanks to these two enormous power balances, the order and vitality in the world we live in and in continues. This information is sufficient to eradicate the possibility of chance formation, and it is also clear that such a glorious order will not occur spontaneously over time.
The universe is influenced by the enormous attraction of the dark matter from the first moment it occurred. The power that brings the material together and the whole universe to be formed stems from the dark matter. The dark matter collects the matter, while the dark energy keeps it from collapsing into the gathered material, thus enlarging the universe by creating a force against this attraction force. Thus, matter does not collapse into itself or is completely dispersed, and the admirable order and vitality in the environment continues on this point.
In the Qur’an, our Almighty Lord reveals this truth as follows:
The universe is calculated and planned with all the details from the first moment of its emergence. Otherwise, even a small deviation in the balance would make it impossible for the universe to form.
To be able to keep the flawless order in the furthest can not be counted as being so equilibrium, it is clear and clear evidence of the existence of the only Almighty, the sole ruler of the entire universe. The universe is full of miracles. And every discovered miracle causes our admiration to grow even further and shows us the superior power and might of Allah, our Almighty Creator.