Molecular Machines For Protein Cleansing In the Cell
Cells live with proteins, the viability of the cell is made possible by specially prepared proteins for each process.
In a typical mammalian cell, 10 to 20 thousand different protein types work. These proteins must be healthy before the cell can be healthy. Therefore, the existence of quality control mechanisms within the cell has critical prescription.
Recent studies have revealed a quality control system that is composed of proteins, which controls the proteins in the cell. Accordingly, incorrectly produced or damaged proteins were detected first and then immediately removed from the medium.
Makes the Protein Impact on the Right Shape
A protein comes out of the ribosome as a chain of thousands of amino acids but can not function without its folded 3-dimensional state. Proteins called chaperones pick up these amino acid chains and bring them into their final state within the moon and convert them into working nano-machines. However, at the molecular level, delicate connections are required, which can lead to errors at the folding stage and to the formation of broken amino acid masses. Such defective proteins are a serious danger to cell health. Because these proteins, which are not fully folded, are likely to make chemical bonds with other molecules around because of their open connections.
Ready for any uncontrolled chemical linkage, non-functioning proteins are harmful garbage for the cell. The accumulation of these garbage threatens the health of the cell and the whole body. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases developed by persistent neuronal damage develop due to the inability to carry out various cardiac diseases, diabetes and certain types of cancer as required by intracellular healthy protein balance. Incorrect proteins adhere to each other and other molecules, causing them to ‘accumulate’, leading to a cytotoxic effect, ie intracellular poisoning. These masses of defective proteins are called fibrils or filaments and are also called amyloid deposits.
Monitoring and Auditing Employees Working in the Cell
A wide and effective quality control network must always be in place so that the cell can perform its functions in a healthy way. For this, it is necessary to collect the defective proteins and remove them immediately from the cell. Since proteins are structurally dynamic, they must be monitored continuously. For this purpose, chaperone molecules and protein breakdown mechanisms, which operate in an integrated manner, are constantly at work.
Proteins called chaperones provide folding, but they also play a role in repair and maintenance. Chaperones are defined as the ‘technical supervision authority’ of the cell because of their delicate tasks. They examine other proteins against quality errors. Chaperones activate a protein-degradation mechanism when they come across a defective protein that they identify as faulty. This is the ubiquitin-proteasome (protein destruction) system.
Nano Dimensions of Garbage Grinding System
Protein degradation is a destruction process that is closely controlled by successive steps. In addition to the chaperones, it has been understood that the enzyme Doa10 ligase also detects defective proteins. When the Doa10 enzyme detects an incorrect protein, it marks the protein ubiquitin molecule. However, in order to generate this signal of destruction, the Ubc6 enzyme must first introduce an incorrect ubiquitin molecule into the protein. Following this first step, another enzyme, Ubc7, comes into play, bringing a homogenous chain consisting of many ubiquitin. When the chain is completed, the destruction process begins. As can be seen, the existence of two separate enzymes is essential for the destruction signal to be triggered.
In this phase, the proteasome ubiquitin, consisting of 33 subunits and 2 subcomplexes, deviates and immediately cleaves the peptide bonds of the protein that it labels. The defective protein is now separated into amino acids.
When we think that 30% of the proteins produced in the cell are faulty, it is better to understand how vital this trash milling system is. Leaving the erroneous production edge, all the working proteins wear out after a while and take their places to the new ones. This means that the proteins that complete the life cycle are marked and destroyed in the same way.
Every Detail Of Our Body Points To A Magnificent Creation
It would not have been possible to talk about cell health without this sensitive control system, which was described here as a very brief summary and control of the protein world. This vital equilibrium system has to work in the same perfection in the 100 trillion cells that make up our body. This can be explained by superior management and coordination.
It is neither coincidental nor unintelligible logic that nonconsent proteins inspect other proteins, molecules such as themselves, that other molecules, which are unconscioned, move in order, and that the destruction system is only required when it is necessary when it is necessary.
It is very clear that one of these rational steps will result in cell death, that is, there should be no glitch in the system and that all of them work in harmony with one another. This leads us to the fact that it is a ‘one’ power with knowledge of everything that has life and vitality. It is Allah Who has knowledge of all things, Who has dominion over all things, Who has created and created every work from the heavens, if he possesses an admirable, exciting power.
- In vivo aspects of protein folding and quality control, David Balchin, Manajit Hayer-Hartl and F. Ulrich Hartl (June 30, 2016) Science 353 (6294), [doi: 10.1126/science.aac4354]
- Sequential Poly-ubiquitylation by Specialized Conjugating Enzymes Expands the Versatility of a Quality Control Ubiquitin Ligase. Annika Weber et al, Molecular Cell 63. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2016.07.020